The king of this sort of thing is The Bonfire of the Vanities. Also, various versions of The Great Gatsby.
Generally the movie (or TV program) foreshortens the action because of time limitation. Weird things happen to a novel when you do that. Just watched THE OLD CURIOSITY SHOP on PBS. In the show, the grandfather becomes a disgusting scoundrel instead of a weak old man with a gambling problem. I used to like the novel quite well. It was tragic, but the grandfather had a chance to redeem himself somewhat.
While we (me) are blasting movies, I feel an obligation to mention two movies that translated very well into film.
The Godfather I and II. The Bladerunner which I believe to be the best SciFi movie ever.